Dry skin: characteristics, causes, care

Dry skin is very thin, delicate and prone to dehydration. Many people have this type of skin. This can be problematic as it requires proper care. Due to its characteristic features, it is easy to recognize. Her sebaceous glands work more slowly than they should, which means that the skin is deprived of a natural lipid membrane, which increases its sensitivity to external factors, such as the sun, wind, frost, air pollution.


Dry skin and its characteristics

The skin performs very important functions for us. Both internal and external factors can impair the skin’s ability to hydrate and result in very dry skin. Its characteristic feature is its high sensitivity to adverse weather conditions and water. When the skin of the body becomes dry, it can become flaky and itchy and even crack.

Dry skin can flake and cause severe itching

How to recognize dry skin? Identification is not difficult: it is dull, rough to the touch, shrinks after washing. The tendency to fine wrinkles is much higher than other skin types.

Almost always matte, and the pores are closed and invisible. It is thin and blood vessels are visible through it. In the most sensitive places, for example, on the cheeks, dilated capillaries may form. It lacks elasticity, which causes discomfort in the form of tightness or itching. Dry skin can be a symptom of disease.

Causes of dry skin

Dry skin is rarely congenital. This is due to external and internal factors. Skin condition is affected by: genes, age, lifestyle, stress levels, and hormonal changes throughout life.

External factors why the skin is dry:

  • make-up products are not suitable for skin type;
  • low temperatures, dry air and cold wind cause a violation of the protective functions of the skin;
  • ultraviolet rays contribute to faster aging in open areas, and over the years, the skin in these places becomes more prone to dryness;
  • frequent and prolonged hot baths help to remove the lipid layer responsible for the protective barrier of the skin;
  • improper diet: the use of carbonated drinks, sweets, very fatty and spicy foods;
  • bad habits: smoking, alcohol abuse and a lot of coffee;
  • also dry, sensitive facial skin occurs due to beriberi.
  • side effects of many drugs, such as diuretics, increase the amount of water excreted from the body.

If the protective lipid membrane of the epidermis is damaged, moisture quickly leaves the stratum corneum. More often it is caused by external factors such as cold, dry or hot air, UV radiation, and improper care or medication. UV radiation damages the lipids of the epidermal protective barrier of the skin, so you need to use sunscreen all year round, even in winter.

In winter, low temperatures, frosty air, heating of radiators adversely affect the condition of the skin, especially dry. Moisturizing emollient cream will strengthen the weakened hydro-lipid membrane and increase its resistance to adverse external factors.

It’s not just dehydration that causes dryness. First of all, you need to pay attention to the composition of cosmetics intended for dry skin. Excessive use of drying alcohol-based cosmetics or too frequent exfoliation of the epidermis with rough peels, as well as climatic factors and improper nutrition, over time, make it dry, dehydrated and uncomfortable.

Internal factors:

  • heredity can cause a violation of the moisture balance in the skin. Skin diseases that are genetic: atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis, psoriasis;
  • changes in hormone levels such as estrogen and testosterone reduce the ability to retain moisture, leading to dry skin;
  • the number of sweat and sebaceous glands decreases over the years, which limits the ability to synthesize sweat and lipids;
  • Cigarettes restrict blood flow, decrease the metabolic rate of the skin, and begin the process of drying out the skin.

You can notice dryness of the epidermis more often with age. This is the result of a decrease in the ability of the epidermal layer to bind water. The activity of the sebaceous glands decreases. For most women during menopause, the proper functioning of hormonal balance is disturbed, which has a huge impact on the appearance and condition of the skin. Therefore, women over 50 are more likely to notice dry skin.

Stress negatively affects the skin. Its excess affects the disturbances in our immune system, which affects the appearance of dermatological diseases. It is responsible for their development and strengthening, and also complicates treatment.

Dry skin care

Too little sebum results in the skin lacking the lipids it needs to maintain proper levels of hydration and proper protection. Due to the broken hydro-lipid barrier, it is more susceptible to irritation and the adverse effects of external factors. As a result, it becomes faster with wrinkles, unpleasant allergic reactions occur compared to other types of skin.

Healthy fats for the skin[
Fats that are good for the skin are primarily ceramides, of which 75% are essential fatty acids that are not produced by the body, but come from food. Therefore, it is necessary to provide them in the daily diet.

Most of the essential fatty acids are found in the oils of cereal sprouts, avocado, grape seed, hazelnuts, evening primrose and borage. They take part in the production of sebum, and are an excellent ingredient in creams for dry skin.

A balanced diet nourishes the skin from within. Therefore, the daily menu should not lack healthy fats, such as oily fish, seafood, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, avocados, olive oil or nuts.

What you need to do is introduce more vegetables and fruits into your daily diet. Foods such as carrots, beets, pumpkins, tomatoes, cabbage and spinach, which are largely composed of water, nourish the skin. Food rich in vitamins improves the proper functioning of the body and enhances the work of the hydrolipid membrane. With dry skin, in addition to moisturizing from the outside, it is extremely important from the inside. Sufficient water will improve skin conditions.

Food rich in vitamins and healthy fats

An effective way to moisturize and nourish dry skin are baths with the addition of nourishing cosmetic oils, such as macadamia or argan oil. The first contains palmitoleic acid, which restores and strengthens the lipid layer of the skin, has strong moisturizing and nourishing properties. Argan oil can be applied directly to the skin (especially in the driest areas). It moisturizes, regenerates and slows down the aging process, which is especially susceptible to dry skin.

Remember! Dry skin does not like long hot baths or stay in air-conditioned rooms. Too long baths in hot water also adversely affect the complexion. They cause dehydration and disruption of the protective lipid membrane. For the skin, it will be better if you choose a summer, shorter shower and only occasionally decide to take a long bath.

Moisturizing emulsions and body lotions, for example, with the addition of urea, hyaluronic acid, vitamin E or monoi oil, help with dry elbows, legs, hands or feet.

The oil can be applied to the skin, especially on dry places

 What should be in cosmetics for dry skin?

What properties should cosmetic products for dry skin have in order to significantly improve its hydration? The active ingredients used in natural cosmetics for dry skin have an excellent effect on strengthening the hydrolipidic barrier of the epidermis and lead to its long-term hydration:

  • properly selected mixtures of vegetable oils (shea butter, sweet almond butter, argan oil, carrot seed oil);
  • aloe;
  • red algae;
  • extract of marshmallow, spinach;
  • vitamin E;
  • ceramides;
  • hyaluronic acid.

Note! If you regularly use natural cosmetics based on the listed ingredients, you can restore dry skin to its natural level of moisture. Thanks to them, roughness, inflammatory processes are reduced, they protect against the adverse effects of external factors.

Natural cosmetics take care of the skin without violating its natural physiological functions, very rarely cause skin sensitivity and do not clog pores, reduce excess sebum or compensate for its deficiency.

Natural cosmetics take care of the skin

Vitamin deficiencies can also lead to dry skin. Vitamin A increases the elasticity of the skin, and also reduces water loss, which enhances its barrier functions. by improving the structure of the stratum corneum. It is also involved in the healing process, improves blood circulation in the skin and increases the amount of collagen fibers. However, it should be remembered that an excess of vitamin A is also harmful. This also leads to a deterioration in the condition of the skin, hair and nails, as well as to dizziness, impaired consciousness.

What cream to choose?

It is very important to use a cream that, in addition to sufficient moisture, also nourishes the skin, protects it and strengthens the hydrolipidic layer. For this purpose, a hydro-lipid cream rich in moisturizing and regenerating ingredients is chosen for evening use. For morning care, choose a cream that will moisturize and protect the skin throughout the day.

Night care should nourish, regenerate the skin during sleep and soothe irritations caused by the day. The eye cream nourishes and slows down the aging process of the delicate skin around the eyes.

The characteristics of dry skin make it important to take care of it daily, not only in the use of creams, but also in the introduction of a two-stage facial cleansing and enzyme peeling once a week. In this way, the appearance of the skin can be significantly improved. Excessive cleansing and exfoliation of the skin worsens its condition.

Products for two-stage facial cleansing 

Avoid products that can cause irritation: drying soaps to cleanse the skin, products containing alcohol, which aggravate dryness and cause skin irritation.

Dry skin can also be a consequence of the aging process of the body. With age, the skin loses its ability to retain water, the composition of the hydrolipid membrane changes.

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